I sent a mail including the following content to some sites in the spring of 2014 .
〝Disturbances were caused over the existence of STAP-cell which had been shown by a Japanesr female researcher, however even if the same as dark matter, black body, worm-hole, this is a virtual being at present, it's very significant to continue to study about the cell.
It seems that she caught 'something' to be able to strikingly get near the embryonic limit.
As unexpected wonderful results can be often drawn from such a field, the same as homunculus ( through chemical topo-logical operations ), multiwave oscillator, it's hesitated to give up such quests″
Checking various cases of fracture of bone, osteoporosis is classified into three types ( 1. low osteo-density type 2. osteo-quality deterioration type 3. the mixture of 1 and 2 ) rather than a single disease from viewpoints of osteo-density and osteo-quality.
Especially, the mixture type ( 3 ) has high risk to cause fracture of bone, medical treatments must be performed on it quickly to prevent successive fractures.
In particular, estimations of inter-molecular cross-links of collagen to regulate osseous quality, markers of oxidative stress and saccharification ( such as pentosidine, homocysteine ) to bring anomaly to collagen can be regarded as surrogate markers to find out osteo-quality deterioration.
It's possible to use combinations of existing medicines against osteoporosis as tailor-made treatments against three types of this disease at present ( in 2013 ).
Osteo-quality is important as a factor to regulate the strength of bone except for osteo-density.
And, osteo-quality is regulated by characters of materials composing a bone and characters of a structure formed on those materials ( fine or microscopic structure ).
Furthermore, osteo-density depends on the extent of calcification of bone and the fine structure of bone.
These factors are controlled by re-modelings of bone.
Namely, if bone-absorption is promoted, the extent of calcification falls.
It's known that collagen occupies 20 % in weight, besides it occupies 50 % ( about half ) in volume of the texture respectively.
It has been found out that the strength of this collagen itself is regulated by a mechanism independent of the re-modeling of bone according to recent studies.
The formation of bridges ( or cross-links ) to interlock adjacent collagen-molecules is a representative modification process after interpretation of collagen.
Besides, this is a factor to regulate calcification and the strength of collagen-fiber.
The formation of collagen bridges ( or collagen cross-links ) is complicatedly controlled by functionalities of osteo-blast and conditions around the collagen ( oxidative stress, saccharificational stress and carbonyl stress, etc ).
As oxidative stress promotes the deterioration of polyethylene for artificial joint, we must take not only local conditions around each artificial joint but also constitutions and diseases ( especially, lifestyle-related diseases ) to increase oxidative stress into consideration.
Studies on the influences of factors to increase oxidative stress on bones consequently enable us to predict abrasions and loosenings caused after the replacement with artificial joint.
The increases of respective stresses are promoted due to lack of estrogen and aging too.
Furthermore, the accumulation of advanced glycation end products ( AGEs ) on bone can be induced by promoting these stresses.
We show it in this section that consequently, such processes can lower the strength of bone and increase the risk of fracture of bone.
A bone composing a wing of a bird has sufficient strength and lightness to fly.
The torus ( cavity ) structure of a bone of a wing of a bird is very similar to torus structures of wings and bridges of a plain.
If bones and muscles successively work on something, organizations composing those organs adaptively vary depending on applied external forces.
And, they have an inclination to be tougher according to such variations.
Such variations can be regarded as functional adaptations by organizations themselves on self-organizations ( without instructions from the brain ).
( • ) One of the functional adaptations simulated with cell-automaton
〈 Rules 〉
A weight is applied to a matter of square cells.
And, a stress generated at each cell is transformed into a numerical value,
if a higher stress is generated at the cell, the strength (＝ Young's modulus) of the cell rises.
This model is different from usual models of cellular automaton, the temporal state of each cell is determined by one's own stress namely the whole state of cells rather than cells on both sides.
→ interactions between each part and the whole ( local scale and non-local scale )
In an actual living body, if the stress on a part increases due to an applied weight to the part, a substance to strengthen osseous tissues around the part is released.
It's supposed that aging is one of the main factors to lower such a feed-back function, so that an osteoporosis is caused.
A bone has a typical porous structure, it contains many cross-links and its density also is high at young generation.
But, because of aging, cross-links are reduced, its density decreases and the strength declines.
As re-modeling contributes to tissue ( organization ) - regeneration, we should pay attention to re-modeling.
Here, we should notice that a bone of a wing of a bird has cavity structure, but unexpectedly it has high strength too.
Namely, we must take not only structural viewpoints but also material viewpoints into consideration.
An enzyme to synthesize ATP is roughly divided into two units, one of those two units is composed of a toroidal part of plural trans-membrane polypeptides and an neighboring part to it.
Another of above two units sticks into the saddle part of the torus.
1. Aging of bone ; changes of osteo-collagens into AGEs
From the viewpoint of material, a bone is likened to a reinforced concrete.
In this case, mineral ingredient corresponds to reinforced concrete, collagen-proteins correspond to reinforcing bars.
※ Collagens contained in bones are mainly classified into I-type.
The quake-resistance (≒ the strength of bone) of a building made of inferior reinforcing bars falls.
※ Recently, it has been found out that some theories for architecture hold even on the strength of bone.
AGEs as aging cross-links are over-inducted into osteo-collagens due to primary osteoporosis, diabetes, renal failure and aging, etc, consequently the strength of bone lowers.
Oxidative stress and saccharification related to ground substantial protein give considerable influences on over-aging of collagen.
By the way, it's impossible to estimate the risk of fracture of bone only on calcium-based parameters dependent on the promotion of bone-absorption and the drop in osteo-density following it.
It also is necessary for catching the risk of fracture at high precision to estimate changes of collagen into AGEs.
Plural estimation methods to utilize AGEs ( pentosidine ) in a blood or an urine as 'osteo-quality markers ( osteo-matrix markers )' for estimating material deterioration have been reported domestically and internationally.
Those methods also are effective to estimate the risk of fracture of bone.
According to longitudinal researches over Nagano cohort, it has been made clear that it's possible to estimate the risk of bone-fracture at high accuracy by combining measurement of osteo-density with data of markers to regulate osteo-qualities (≒ data of osteo-material markers).
Furthermore, according to these clinical studies, it's possible to explain 93 % of the risk of new fracture of vertebra over the women at postmenopause on four factors ( namely, osteo-density, bone-fractures in the past or at that time, age, osteo-material markers ).
Besides, as high valued osteo-quality markers had relation to 33 % of the risks of fracture, they can be regarded as markers to predict fractures.
But, even if AGEs-structured bodies such as pyrraline, carboxymethyl arginine were contained at high value, they did not have relation to the risk of fracture so much.
Accordingly, it has been made clear that the increase of oxidative stress gives considerable influences on the deterioration of osteo-quality.
The strength of collagen is regulated by cross-linked structures inter-locking adjacent molecules.
Then, collagen-molecules secreted from osteo-blasts are regularly ordered.
Next, adjacent collagen-molecules coupling through each cross-link are stabilized.
There are two kinds of cross-links.
One is called good-natured enzyme-dependent cross-link ( immature or mature cross-link ), this plays role to regularly place molecules and strengthens bone with moderate elasticity.
By the way, immature or mature cross-link is called 'physiological cross-link' .
Such cross-links are orderedly formed through actions of enzymes called lysyl oxidase generated from osteoblasts.
Furthermore, these cross-links give influence on calcification.
Meanwhile, under an AGEs-cross link ( aging or bad-natured cross link ), collagen-molecules are over-tied at random, the organization itself loses flexibility, elasticity and consequently it becomes easier to be broken.
Pentosidine is a representative cross link of AGEs.
As this matter has a positive correlation with the total quantity of AGEs , it's generically utilized as a surrogate marker to catch the total quantity.
2. Relations of changes of osteo-collagens into AGEs with microscopic bone-fractures
Saito found out that bone-fracture at micro scale as a main factor to lower the strength of bone is caused by over-formations of AGEs-cross links among collagen-molecules.
To understand inter-relations which hold among such factors to determine osteo-quality, it's convenient to liken bone to reinforced concrete.
As we know, cracks found out on an outer wall made of reinforced concrete are originated in exhaustions of those reinforcing bars due to aging.
In this case, micro-damages correspond to cracks on a reinforced concrete.
3. Changes of osteo-collagens into AGEs with aging
Saito analyzed influences of aging on formations of collagen-bridges in human bones ( 0 〜 84 in age ).
Especially, proximal humerus, distal radius, ilium, femoral neck, fourth lumbar vertebral body and the middle of tibia are known as parts easy to cause fracture due to osteoporosis.
Collagens were extracted from these respective parts, pentosidines ( AGEs-cross links ) contained in them were quantified and the number of cross links per collagen-molecules was calculated out.
So that, it's found out that pentosidines increase with aging over all taken parts.
The quantity of pentosidines in not only blood but also urine increases with aging in proportion to such variations.
Besides, the increase of AGEs in bones with aging are found out independently of gender.
4. Bone-matrix marker ; pentosidine and homocystein
Saito and others performed bone-biopsies ( cortical bone, cancellous bone ) on primary osteoporosis victims who had received femoral neck fractures ( 15 〜 25 cases ) and analyzed extracted collagens.
As the result, it has been made clear that AGEs-cross links namely pentosidines are over-formed even in young osteo-domains in early stages of calcification in cases of fracture.
Many supplementary examinations have made clear that over-formations of AGEs namely pentosidines in osteo-collagen directly cause the fall in strength of bone.
It's known that pentosidines contained in urine at high value have positive correlation with changes of osteo-collagens into AGEs .
Furthermore, cooperative researches with Shiraki and others have shown that these pentosidines at high value can be regarded as a factor to represent the risk of fracture independently of osteo-density.
The same investigation as that to know the risk of new generation of vertebral fracture were executed over uncured 432 women at postmenopause.
So that, especially, a group at maximum quartile value of pentosidines contained in urine ( 47.5 pM/mgCr , on compensations with creatinine ) has the risk of fracture independently of osteo-density, existing fractures, age and renal function.
※ maximum quartile value ;
gathered data are divided into four groups in order of size of value, the maximum group of those four groups.
Furthermore, according to some researches of symptom on contrast, if pentosidines are contained in osteo-collagen of a person at high value, homocysteines contained in blood of the person also are at high value.
Significantly, it has been successively reported that hyperhomocysteinemia is not only a risky factor to cause hardening of the arteries but also the risk of fracture independent of osteo-density in general people.
Then, to check whether hyper-homocysteinemia excessively induces variations of osteo-collagens into AGEs or not, we made tests on rabbits from which ovaries are eliminated ( but they had same remodeled bones as human bones ).
So that, it has been found out that if hyper-homocysteinemia is caused, pentosidines are excessively generated in osteo-collagen and changes of osteo-collagens into AGEs are promoted.
Furthermore, it also has been made clear that the strength of bone is weakened without fall in osteo-density due to this process.
Namely, it's probable that homocysteines in blood at high value promote changes of osteo-collagens into AGEs and increase the risk of fracture.
OFELY study showed that the risk of fracture rises in a group containing pentosidines in urine at high value too.
And, Saito & others found out that the group of the patients who show the brittleness of bone is classified into following three types on osteo-density and osteo-quality according to vertical investigations in age over 502 women at postmenopause ( Nagano-cohort ).
① Low osteo-density type ;
This type is 3.6 times higher than the cases at YAM ＞ 80 % in risk of fracture.
※ YAM ;
The abbreviation of Young Adult Mean. Namely, a mean of young generations in osteo-density.
② Osseous deterioration type ;
This type is 3.6 times higher than the cases at YAM ＞ 80 % in risk of fracture.
③ ① ＋ ② ;
This type is 7.2 times higher than the cases at YAM ＞ 80 % in risk of fracture.
In this case, the rate among respective types in number in Nagano cohort was as follows.
① : ② : ③ ＝ 5 : 3 : 2
Namely, it was made clear that the appearance of osseous deterioration type is not necessarily rare.
Homocysteines in blood at high value ( ＞ 13 nmol/mL ) and pentosidines in urine at high value ( ＞ 47 pmol/mg creatinine ) are useful as surrogate markers to find out symptoms of such osseous deteriorative osteoporosis.
It's possible to request measurements of homocysteines in blood and pentosidines in blood or in urine of contractors for inspection.
However, in Japan at present ( 2013 ), we can't apply the health insurance to such measurements on osteoporosis.
Furthermore, according to vertical studies in age over 251 osteoporotic patients at postmenopause,
it has been made clear that in cases of ③ low osteo-density ＋ osseous deterioration type osteoporosis, even if osteo-densities were raised with bisphosphonate ( a kind of bone-absorption suppressive drug ), the risk of fracture was 'not' reduced.
These facts mean that we must primarily suppress variations of bone collagens into AGEs to sufficiently improve the strength of bone.
5. Changes of bone-collagens into AGEs with diabetes and fall in renal function
In the case of II-type diabetes, hardening of the arteries often appears as a complication.
According to meta-analyses, it has been made clear that a fracture of bone can be caused even at high osteo-density.
So, it's supposed that fractures are actually originated in osseous deterioration.
And, Saito & others made clear the following mechanism on observations of rats which naturally received diabetes.
Low vitamin B6-state ( a state containing vitamin B6 at low value ) and remarkable durable hyper-glycemia originated in the failure of action of insulin bring over-formations of pentosidines in osteo-collagen,
consequently they cause the fall in the strength of bone without lowering the osteo-density.
In the case of II-type diabetes, pentosidines contained in blood or urine at high value also can be regarded as a risk of fracture independent of other some factors.
This is a considerable example to show the correlation between the increase of pentosidines in bone-collagen and the fall in the strength of bone.
Furthermore, Saito & others made clear that renal functional failure not only increases oxidative stress, carbonyl stress but also promotes variations of osteo-collagens into AGEs.
Besides, they drew it from bone biopsies over cases with renal failure that variations of osteo-collagen into AGEs bring falls in functions as osteo-blasts ( namely, fall in function to form bone ).
6. Limits of models with rodents ( such as rat, mouse ) in estimating changes of bone into AGEs
It's difficult to find out a significant increase of AGEs in an osseous substance of a rodent with short life span on aging and pathological models.
Though AGEs increase under remarkable high blood sugar even in the case of rodent, the increase is very small in comparison with that in a human osseous tissue.
We must execute tests on larger-sized animals with longer life span ( rabbit, dog, monkey, etc ) to obtain more reliable estimations.
Therefore, as human being is same as rodent in formation of enzyme-dependent cross-links, we perform experiments with rodents to estimate such formations.
Meanwhile, we plan a test on larger-sized animals for measurements of AGEs in osseous tissues, clarification of pathology and estimation of drug effect.
※ And, results drawn from human osseous tissue biopsies are compared with these data.
Furthermore, remodelings (≒ renewal of tissues namely metabolism ) are not carried out in bones of rodent.
Namely, those cases are different from cases of human being, as a single modeling is continued for a life span, it's not proper to analyze aging process of human bone with rodents.
Briefly explaining of osteoporosis, changes of osteo-collagen into AGEs are promoted by some factors ( ・ fall in osteo-density originated in the promotion of bone-remodeling, ・ fall in function of osteo-blast, ・ promoted oxidative stress ),
consequently osseous tissues are remarkably weakened.
Oxidative stress increases at menopause, variations of osseous tissues into AGEs are promoted without hyper-homocysteinemia.
In particular, as the cases at low osteo-density ＋ osseous deterioration have remarkable high risk of fracture, we must estimate markers related to osteo-density and osseous markers at the same time, choose an effective medicine which is suitable to the pathological type.
Furthermore, if the replacement with an artificial joint is performed on an osseous deterioration type osteoporotic case at high oxidative stress, as it's highly probable that a tissue-deterioration originated in the oxidation of polyethylene also is promoted,
we should take the use of medicines or chemicals with anti-oxidative actions into consideration too.
• High-polymer materials which are used as main bio-materials in the field of orthopedics
〈 Preface 〉
As the goal of regenerative medicine is to revive lost living functions, roles of bio-materials to help the purpose are still left.
1. Present conditions of materials to fix bones for treatment for fracture
Artificial materials with high strength are used to restore a fractured part and support the chest in respective fields such as orthopedics, oral surgery and thoracic surgery.
Primarily, plates and screws for joining bones should be used as supplementary tools to cure of fractures, they need to be removed as quickly as possible after recovery to prevent the weakening of bone.
At present, most of the clinical materials to fix bones are made of metal or ceramic.
But, elastic degrees of these materials are so high that they can deform bones.
And, metallic ions flowing out of those materials can injure the living body.
Accordingly, if those materials are same as bones in elastic degree and they are well resolved-absorbed into the living body, they are convenient to join bones.
So that, it also will be possible to cancel various bad influences caused by foreign matters which are left in a living body for a long term.
Researches to apply poly-lactic acid as a kind of possible high polymer to be resolved and absorbed into a living body to cure for fracture have a comparatively old history.
Gen and others developed materials made of PLLA ( PoLy-Lactic Acid ) to cure of fracture, those materials have been clinically utilized over the world ( the same as a surgery-assisting robot called da Vinci ).
Furthermore, the following way to mold was devised to improve its mechanical characters.
Once a tissue is molded with degradable & absorbable high-polymer materials in vivo containing hydroxyapatite such as PLLA, its strength and elastic degree are improved by uni-axially stretching the molded tissue.
Moreover, a poly-lactic acid rod processed with injection molding is uni-axially stretched at high temperature, high magnification ( 7 〜 12 times ), so that the fibrillated tissue gets higher strength and higher elastic degree.
Besides, Gen and others produced an other material to join bones by uni-axially stretching a fusion-molded body made of PLLA with viscous mean molecular mass of more than two hundred thousands.
But, in cases of above materials to fix bones, as only the initial strength and the hydrolysis-resistance (≒ durability against hydrolysis) are taken into consideration, those materials have been still in-sufficient in elastic degree, durability of strength in living body.
Especially, in-sufficiencies of following aspects have been pointed out.
・ Degradabilities and absorbabilities in vivo after the fracture is cured.
・ The promotion of degradabilities & absorbabilities in vivo after the degree to keep the initial strength gets 0 .
In general, a cure for fracture is completed for about 6 〜 8 months.
By the way, after the above material to cure of fracture is implanted into a living body, as the molecular mass is reduced, the strength also falls.
Accordingly, such a character is desirable for curing of fracture in some sense.
But, the initial strength gets 0 and the molecular mass also are reduced from two hundreds thousands to thousands 〜 tens of thousands within about 4 months after the implantation.
Furthermore, particle-like crystals are left in the living body for about 3 〜 5 years.
Therefore, even if these materials are applied to osteo-tissues, as speeds required to decompose and absorb them are so slow, the cavity of the bone is occupied with fibrous tissues, osseous tissues are not re-organized in a part into which a material to heal fracture is implanted even after 3 〜 5 years pass and the part will be left to be hollow.
Such a situation not only remarkably lowers the dynamical strength to bear a weight but also causes various following complications more seriously.
2. Present conditions of artificial joint ( 2013 )
Basic conditions necessary to materials for artificial joint are as follows.
① Exellent suitabilities for living body
② Sufficient dynamical strength
③ Excellent abrasion-resistant properties ( durabilities against abrasion )
④ Which are chemically stable without deteriorations of materials
Though artificial joints to satisfy above respective conditions are desired, actual situations have been still insufficient for such requirements.
Until now, metals have been mainly used as hard materials for artificial joint.
But, recently, ceramics also are partially being used for artificial joint.
Especially, alumina is preferred due to following properties.
・ Exellent suitabilities for living body and mechanical strength
・ This material has better affinity with Ultra High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene ( UHMWPE ) than metals in abrasive character.
But, as this alumina is fragile, zirconium is more expected as a stronger ceramic for artificial joint recently.
As stated in the above, various shaped artificial joints are clinically applied, they are synthesized by combining hard materials such as metals and ceramics with soft materials such as UHMWPE ( Ultra High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene ).
Then, osteo-cement plays a main role to fix an artificial joint in the bio-osseous tissue.
Osteo-cement is solidified by polymerizing methyl methacrylate in a living body.
Particularly, this osteo-cement has succeeded in strongly joining an artificial joint to a bionic bone.
However, osseous tissues around the osteo-cement get necrotic due to the heat of about 90 ℃ generated in polymerizing osteo-cement and residual monomers, fibrous tissues are formed instead of osseous tissues.
Therefore, after a long time passes from the implantation, the 'loosening' of the artificial joint is caused as the most serious complication.
Recently ( 2013 ), it has been found out that not only problems related to osteo-cement but also abrasions of UHMWPE ( Ultra High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene ) give remarkable influences on such the generation of 'loosening' .
There are many clinically applied cases except for representative artificial joints sold at present as shown in the above.
As those models also are constantly varied, those contents also will be further changed after several years.
More than 30 years have passed since artificial joints were developed and they were clinically applied to patients suffering from arthro-diseases.
For those some decades, many bed-ridden patients could walk again and return to society.
In the sense, artificial joints could considerably contribute to social welfare.
But, after about 10 〜 20 years, after 5 years at the earliest from an operation, the 'loosening' of artificial joint is caused as a complication at high frequency.
Consequently, as osseous tissues around the artificial joint are damaged, it's needed to execute a surgery again for healing the injury.
Such problems are being reported over the world, they are regarded as serious problems in the field of orthopedics.
Recently, some causes which bring damages to bone have been made clear.
According to those reports, it has been found out that as UHMWPE used as a material for rubbing parts of artificial joint is low in abrasion-resistance in comparison with cartilage, it's poor in stress-relaxation against impulsive weight.
Observing a Charnley type UHMWPE-socket with X-ray, it's abraded by about 0.08 mm every year.
Then, if one granule of UHMWPE-abrasion powders has a span of about 10 μm , 2800 abrasion granules are generated around the joint.
If the quantity of generated abrasion granules is small, as those granules can be digested by macrophages and foreign body giant cells, bad granulation tissues are not formed.
But, if large quantities of abrasion granules are generated, as even those cells can not digest generated granules, bad granulation tissues originated in remaining abrasion particles promote necrosis and osteo-injury.
So that, the patient not only gets impossible to walk again but also becomes suffered from intense agony.
As most of the 'loosenings' as the most serious complication for artificial joint are caused between bones and osteo-cements, artificial joints without osteo-cements had been developed and they have been clinically used since the 1980's .
To strongly fix this cementless artificial joint on the bone, we must modify the surface of the material so as to be porous and push newly generated osseous tissues into those modified materials.
For that, various ways including ways to coat the surface with active ceramics possible to directly join to bones such as hydroxyapatite, methods to screw in and methods to spike, etc are being executed.
But, recently, we have found out that even if these cementless artificial joints are applied to injured parts, the generation of 'loosenings' is not reduced, rather the bone-absorption around an implanted part becomes remarkable.
And, it has been reported that large quantities of UHMWPE-abrasion granules are contained in tissues around the implanted part, granulation tissues surrounded by macrophages and foreign body giant cells absorb osseous tissues near those implanted parts, consequently osseous tissues decay.
In an international meeting of orthopedics held in September of 1993 , Harris.W bundled up these problems into a concept called 'particle disease' , it was made clear that the most serious problems related to artificial joint at present are originated in abrasion-resistances of UHMWPE .
Since then, problems of UHMWPE-abrasion have been actively dealt with in meetings of orthopedics and bio-material.
However, these problems have never been solved yet ( 2013 ) .
・ Present conditions of cartilage for artificial joint ( 2013 )
Bio-joint ( namely a joint in a living body ) functionally relaxes an extreme impulsive weight, uniformly conducts such a weight to bones under cartilages and is durable against abrasion for about 80 years under very low friction.
Fluid membranes between articular cartilage and the surface of joint, cancellous bones under cartilages contribute to supporting amazing high performances of bio-joint.
However, it also is sure that functions of joint are gradually lowered due to aging, people who suffer from articular diseases such as deformable hip osteo-arthrists increase.
Therefore, it's not rare to reluctantly replace a bio-joint with an artificial joint for recovering lost functions.
In the case of most popularly used artificial hip joint at hip joint at present, a metallic stem such as titanium alloy is inserted into its thighbone-side directly or through osteo-cement, meanwhile a high-polymer hard material such as UHMWPE-cup is combined with its ace tabular side.
Therefore, it's not rare to reluctantly replace a bio-joint ( living joint ) with an artificial joint for recovering lost functions.
In the case of most popularly used artificial hip joint
at present ( 2013 ), a metallic stem such as titanium alloy is inserted into its thighbone-side directly or through osteo-cements, meanwhile a high-polymer hard material such as UHMWPE-cup is combined with its acetabular side.
But, after a replacement surgery, large quantities of polyethylene abrasion granules are generated between a stem and a cup, besides 'loosenings' originated in osteo-cements and surrounding granulation tissues are caused at very high frequency.
Therefore, in many cases, a secondary replacement is needed within 10 〜 20 years after the surgery. Furthermore, as it's needed to eliminate remarkable quantities of osseous tissues including healthy bones in surgery, considerable loads are brought to the patient.
Then, as considerable quantities of osseous tissues have been already lost in secondary surgery, these problems make such surgeries troublesome.
Accordingly, artificial joints are applied to only aged persons at present.
By the way, in the case of deforming coxarthropathy ( deforming hip osteo-arthritis ), as its focuses are found out in only partial domains of the surface of joint, we don't have to remove the major part of cartilaginous cancellous trabecular bone group including healthy osseous tissues in performing a surgery.
Then, we should develop a surfacial replacement-type artificial articular cartilage to replace only the focus with an artificial material.
In some experiment, an artificial articular cartilage made of polyvinyl alcohol ( PVA ) was applied to a beagle dog.
In this case, a focus originated in femoral head necrosis was replaced with an artificial articular cartilage made of PVA , since then good conditions have been brought to the dog.
・ Present conditions of artificial inter-vertebral disk
Main dynamical ( or mechanical ) functions of vertebra are summarized into following three factors.
1. Protections of the spinal cord and nervous components
2. The support of the weight of a body trunk
3. Smooth motions of a body trunk
Namely, bearability and movability are mainly requested of this part.
To heal damages on inter-vertebral disk as a main cause of backache, a surgery to remove inter-vertebral disk and an operation to fix lumbar vertebra are mainly performed.
Especially, the latter treatment is frequently executed owing to improvements in instrument, conditions after the operation also comparatively become stable.
But, movability is partially lost due to the operation to fix vertebra.
Consequently, as extreme stresses are brought to non-fixed neighboring inter-vertebral disks, we must take bad influences into consideration.
It's desirable to develop artificial inter-vertebral disks for giving both bearability and movability with no pains to an injured vertebra again.
Provisionally, developments of artificial inter-vertebral disk have been being carried out for 30 years until now.
But, most of them are conceptual researches on biomechanics of vertebra.
Namely, though there are many theoretical reports to show dynamical characters required of artificial inter-vertebral disk and to propose new inter-vertebral materials, we can't find out cases in which such ideas were actually applied to a living body so much.
In most of the artificial inter-vertebral disks used until now, a material like polyethylene is inserted between metallic plates.
Failures originated in dislocations and deviations from regular positions have been reported until now.
In particular, if an artificial inter-vertebral disk deviates or is dislocated from the vertebral body,
as serious complications are caused, goals to develop artificial inter-vertebral disks are focused on following two points, namely,
( 1 ) the stable settlement of the part on the vertebral body
( 2 ) the physiological movabilities of the implanted inter-vertebral disk
An artificial inter-vertebral disk made of PVA which had been developed by Gen & others was implanted into the vertebral body of a beagle dog.
The condition after one year from the surgery was good.
• Present conditions of artificial ligament
Damages in ligaments of knee are frequently found out in athletes and sportspersons.
Recently, as the population of sportspersons increases, cases which receive such a damage also gradually increase.
In general, as damages in ligaments of knee especially damages in anterior cruciate ligament are not naturally healed, it's needed to perform a surgical operation for healing such an injury.
If such damages are left, serious troubles can be caused in not only returns to sports but also daily life.
In general, 〈 suture ＋ the transplantation of own tendon into the injured part 〉is performed to heal this damage.
But, complications originated in picking own tendon such as fall in muscular strength, pains and nervous paralyses are caused, consequently, a long time is required to return to sports, the decline in performance also is inevitable.
In the past, some types of artificial ligaments made of non-absorbent polyester had been produced.
But, stable effects have never been realized yet because of rejections in a living body and in-durability against stress for a long term.
Progresses in regenerative medicine enable developments of various artificial organs.
For now, regenerative medical approaches for an injured ligament have been scarcely performed, as there are no effective treatments for this damage, it's one of the most urgent subjects.
A ligament is a tissue in which respective components are closely bound and this is a comparatively simple tissue of fibrous blasts and collagens.
However, this organ still includes many unknown points from viewpoints of molecular biology and systematic engineering.
Because, as each tissue itself is very tiny, it's difficult to separate it into cellular units, furthermore characters proper to cells constituting a ligament have never been made clear yet.
About one hundred and fifty thousand reconstructive surgeries for injured anterior cruciate ligament are performed a year in USA , about thirty 〜 fifty thousand reconstructive surgeries for it are performed a year in Japan.
It's probable that considerable numbers of cases including surgeries for ligaments except for anterior cruciate ligaments are executed.
Developments of new artificial ligaments combined with bio-activated matters will give remarkable influences on medical and industrial fields.
• Future Works
At present, there are various absorbent materials to heal fracture, they are clinically applied to respective situations.
Then, PDS ( Poly Dioxanone ), TMC ( Tri Methylene Carbonate ) or PDLLA ( Poly DL Lactic Acid ) are applied to parts at comparatively low strength.
Meanwhile, PLLA ( Poly L Lactic Acid ) is applied to parts at which high initial strength is required.
Furthermore, various ideas ( for example, introductions of molecular orientations and formations of composites ) are taken into consideration to improve such an initial strength.
By the way, materials to join bones for healing fracture at present are as follows.
To sustain the osteo-strength of more than 200 MPa for about 3 months,
for example, composites of poly-lactic acid, co-polymers of lactic acids and glycolic acids with hydroxyapatites are uni-axially stretched.
200 MPa ; the strength of human cortical bone against compression & bending
About 3 months ; the minimum term until a broken bone is naturally healed
Poly Lactic Acid, co-polymer of lactic acid and glycolic acid ; degradable and absorbable high-polymers in vivo
Hydroxyapatite ; this matter is excellent in affinity with osseous tissue , with molecular mass of more than one hundred thousand
But. as pointed out previously, the degree to maintain strength with initial strength and hydrolysis has been partially improved, however after four months from the implantation namely after the initial strength gets 0 , implanted materials are still left in the living body without completely being resolved and absorbed. From now, we must solve these problems.
〈 Artificial Joint 〉
Since the success in the Charnley-type artificial hip joint with UHMWPE ( Ultra High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene ), UHMWPE s have been applied to most of rubbing parts of artificial joints.
But, UHMWPE-abrasion-granules generated due to frictions and abrasions cause necroses and decays of tissues around an artificial joint, besides the 'loosening' of the artificial joint.
Accordingly, recently, improvements in abrasion-resistance in UHMWPE (＝ durability against abrasion ) is strongly requested.
Though this improvement in abrasion-resistance is the most important subject for artificial joint, ways to improve those troubles have been scarcely found out.
At present, we are being urged to overcome this trouble.
〈 Artificial Articular Cartilage 〉
An artificial articular cartilage can be applied to an injured part comparatively early, besides, it's possible to apply it to the young generation and to keep various healthy functions with it.
For example, PVA ( Poly-Vinyl Alcohol )-hydrogel has been studied as a main material composing an artificial articular cartilage.
As this material contains waters, it has lubricative effects similar to those of living articular cartilage.
So, it's expected to keep a low frictional state with it.
Following two points are especially important to apply artificial articular cartilage to clinical fields.
(a) ways to settle it on the osteo-ground
(b) dynamical suitabilities including functionalities in wide sense
First, about (a), according to some researches, it has been made clear that if a titanium fiber mesh (＝ porous artificial bone) is used as a material to bond PVA-hydrogels to osseous tissues, newly generated bones get into respective holes of the TFM ( Titanium Fiber Mesh ), so that the adhesion of osseous tissues with TFMs is rigidly fixed.
And, if a PVA-solution at high concentration sufficiently permeates the TFM with injection molding method and the permeated solution is varied to a gel, a strong bond between PVA and TFM can be realized.
Namely, PVA-hydrogel can be regarded as a material for artificial articular cartilage which is very effective in the settlement of it on an osteo-ground.
Furthermore, this is very effective against the deterioration in vivo too.
Accordingly, we should advance researches of artificial articular cartilage on this material.
〈 Artifivial Inter-vertebral Disk 〉
The same as the case of artificial articular cartilage, Gen and others produced a material to settle an artificial inter-vertebral disk on a living vertebral body by pouring a PVA-solution into respective holes of TFM with an injection molding machine.
From now, we need to demonstrate the usefulness of the new type of artificial inter-vertebral disk through experiments in vivo and aim at clinical application of it.
〈 Artificial Ligament 〉
Followings are provisional aims in this field at present.
・ If mechanical stimuli and various cytokines are given to ligamental cells, reactions to those stimuli and supplies appear.
We need to establish ways to culture ligamental cells at higher cellular activated state on those reactions.
・ Polymers containing heparins with respective cytokine-bonding capacities are used to design matrices which enable cell-multiplication, vascular induction.
Furthermore, we need to prepare following materials to compose tissues with sufficient strength.
・ Collagen-gels to which dynamical stimuli such as periodic stresses and magnetic stimuli are given.
・ Hybrid artificial ligaments with which artificial high-polymers such as polylactic acid fibers and elastin-like protein-based polymers ※ are combined.
※ They were developed by Urry SR and others ( Queensland university of technology, Australia ) with genetic modification methods.
First, transplanting this artificial ligament into a rabbit, we must demonstrate that its functions are sustained.
• Achievemental levels of respective aims
It's desirable that materials introduced here are developed as medical high-polymer biomaterials which are gentle to living body.
Concretely, following researches should be supported.
〈 Materials to fix bones for healing fracture 〉
・ Developments of degradable & absorbable materials in vivo for fixing bones which are equal to metallic materials for fixing in reliability.
・ To raise initial elastic degrees of those materials to that of cortical bone.
・ After those initial strengths get 0 , they should be quickly degraded and absorbed into the living body.
〈 Artificial Joint 〉
As the replacement with an artificial joint brings remarkable stresses to the patient, we should develop an artificial joint which works for a long term of 30 〜 50 years with no troubles after the surgery.
〈 Artificial Articular Cartilage 〉
Artificial joints have considerably contributed to healing of deforming coxarthrosis.
But, as its durable spans are short ( 10 〜 20 years ), they are not suitable to patients at young generation.
And, we need to develop a surfacial replacement-type artificial articular cartilage which is clinically applicable to the replacement of a chondral surface.
〈 Artificial Inter-vertebral Disk 〉
Developments of artificial inter-vertebral disks which are similar to living inter-vertebral disks namely have both bearability and movability.
〈 Artificial Ligament 〉
Recent progresses of tissue-engineering and regenerative medicine have partially produced clinically applicable organs.
But, for now, regenerative medical fruits on ligament are scarcely found out.
Namely, there are limits in healing of injured ligament at the present medicine.
Accordingly, the establishment of ways to heal on tissue-engineering is urgent in this case ( in 2013 ).
• The waste disposal by thermo-plasma 〜 〈 1 〉
It's regarded that thermal plasma is useful to waste-disposal due to following characters.
1 ）As thermo-plasma is at high energy, high density and high temperature,
its speed for processing & reaction is quick.
2 ）Because of its high temperature, we can synthesize compositions at quasi-stable phase and in-equilibrium phase by properly quenching.
3 ）We can quickly start up & shut down the process because of conveying-heat at high speed on thermal plasma.
4 ）A small quantity of gas is sufficient to perform a processing by thermal plasma, so exaust gases can be kept at low quantity.
And, following processes are realized as practical uses for waste disposal.
Thermo-plasma is being used for large general waste disposal such as process to melt down burnt ash.
We can prevent heavy metals which are included in burnt ash issued from incinerators for urban garbages from melting and can turn them to be harmless by resolving dioxin through the thermo-plasma.
Besides, plasma-melting technology is practically used for medical waste disposal.
In such a system, wastes are thermally decomposed at anoxia condition, disused material carbides, hypodermic needles and phials, etc are turned to be stable slags by heating through plasma.
And, thermal plasma is being used to re-cycle dusts which are issued in great quantities from iron-manufacturing and steel-making factories too.
Dusts from an electric furnace are about equal to 1 〜 2 % of thrown raw materials, those dusts contain valuable metals such as Zn, Pb, Cr, etc.
Processing those dusts through thermo-plasma, we can withdraw Zn and Pb at the high pressure of steam from the top of the furnace, other metals such as Fe, Cr, Ni at melted state from the bottom of the furnace.
Furthermore, processes to withdraw platinum-groups from abandoned catalysts for motor-vehicle, processes to re-withdraw aluminum from alumidolos resulted from melting and casting aluminum by melting through arc-plasma have been developed.
As the above, thermo-plasma has already been practically used in various fields for waste-disposal.
Besides, thermo-plasma was widely used as a heat source at high temperature in the field of material-processing, for example, plasma-spraying.
But, only characters at high temperature of thermo-plasma are used in most of these applied examples.
Furthermore, thermo-plasma has a fascinating property called 〝high chemical activation″ too.
Properly using charged particles and radicals in the thermal plasma together with its high chemical activation, new processes for waste-disposal also will be developed.
These processes are shown in the following.
2.1 The decomposition of CFC ( Chloro-Fluoro-Carbon )
To resolve environmental problems originating in CFCs , it's required to suppress the release of CFCs into the atmosphere by properly decomposing CFCs.
The plasma-method, the combustion-method, the cement kiln-method, the oxygen-hydrogen flame-method, etc were acknowledged as valid technologies to decompose CFCs in countries signing the Montreal protocol.
In the case of the method for decomposing CFCs by plasma, methods using arc-discharge, microwave-discharge and corona-discharge have been practically used.
Here, the method for decomposing CFCs by RF-plasma with steam is shown.
A plant to decompose CFCs by high-frequency ( RF ) thermal plasma with steam is put in I city of Japan.
This plant can decompose CFCs at 70 kg/h by generating the 100 %-steam plasma from the 200 kW-power under the 200 torr-pressure.
The total reaction to decompose CFC-11 ( CCl3F ) through steam-plasma is as follows.
CCl3F ＋ 2 ( H2O ) → CO2 ＋ 3 ( HCl ) ＋ HF
( 1 )
In the case without steam, disproportionations to generate CCl2F2 and CClF3 and demerization reactions to generate C2Cl3F and C2Cl3F3 appear, and the generation of soot also is confirmed.
To suppress these side-effects is one of the advantages on the use of steam-plasma.
When CFCs are decomposed through steam-plasma, HF and HCl also are generated.
Letting these decomposed gases through water, HF and HCl can be removed as solutions.
And, the water temperature can be lowered into below 80 ℃ by directly passing decomposed gas through water, so that the re-composition of dioxin can be suppressed.
After that process, issued gases are purified in a scraba or a building to remove active carbons.
In the case of PLASCON-plasma process in Australia, CFCs are decomposed by supplying steam into a DC plasma jet. http://www.plascon.com.au/
The system can decompose CFC-12 ( CF2Cl2 ) at 40 L/min through the 150 kW plasma jet, if the ratio of supply-quantity to the power of plasma is set up below 6 mol/kWh, CF3Cl generated from side-effects can be suppressed.
In particular, the use of steam as plasma-gas can more effectively suppress the generation of CF3Cl and CF4 compared with the use of oxygen.
And, in Germany, a pilot plant to decompose CFCs through DC-plasma jet of 100 % steam has been developed.
「Hazardous Waste Destruction」 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=atFPpBWl31o
2. The waste disposal by steam plasma
2.2 The decomposition of halon
Halon is a kind of CFC including bromine, the matter has been used for computer-rooms, electric rooms and fire-extinguishing equipments in forbidden places of the use of water such as parking areas.
But, as halon was specified as a matter to cause environmental destruction, the production of this matter has been stopped.
However, methods to properly process abandoned halons also have never been established ( in 2011 ).
The decomposition of halon is costly, technologically more difficult than that of CFC .
In such a situation, the method to process halon by thermal plasma has been regarded as one of the efficient methods to decompose halon.
※ As about 98 % of managed halons correspond to halon 1301 ( CBrF3 ), the establishment of method to process halon 1301 is an emergency subject.
The decomposition of halon is being carried out through steam RF plasma shown in a previous section.
It has been achieved to decompose halon 1301 at 50 kg/h under the same condition as that of CFC .
The total reaction of halon 1301 with steam-plasma is as follows.
CBrF3 ＋ 2 ( H2O ) → CO2 ＋ 3 ( HF ) ＋ HBr
( 2 )
The research to decompose halon with techniques of PLASCON stated in the above also is being continued.
In the case of decomposition of CF2ClBr with steam, if the ratio of supplied quantity to plasma-power is below 10 mol/kWh , un-decomposed halons can be ignored.
And, HBr, HF and HCl can be removed as solutions by making decomposed gases alkaline.
However, a defect in ways to make decomposed gas alkaline is that the facility for drainage tends to be large-scale.
Recently ( about 2011 ), the dry-thermal decomposing-method is being considered to withdraw bromides and fluorines generated as decomposed CFC-gases by reacting them with solid-alkaline materials such as calcium oxide and magnesium oxide.
The system for waste-disposal without water-processing like this is economically advantageous.
The total reaction of halon 1301 with burnt lime is as follows.
CBrF3 ＋ 2 ( CaO ) → CO2 ＋ 3/2 ( CaF2 ) ＋ 1/2 ( CaBr )
( 3 )
One of the features of dry-thermal decomposing-method is to solidify fluorines & bromines resulted from the decomposition of halon into CaF2 & CaBr2 and efficiently withdraw those solidified matters.
2.3 The decomposition of tire
The process to re-use combustion heat resulted from the burning of abandoned tires has been regarded as one of the ways to process abandoned tires.
But, in this case, the generation of harmful issued gases such as NOx, CHx and SOx, etc is inevitable, and heavy-metals such as Hg, Zn, Cd also are contained in those issued gases.
So, way to synthesize fuel-gas through thermal decomposition is more suitable than burning for processing abandoned tires.
In particular, when the thermal decomposition of abandoned tires is carried out through thermal plasma, the fuel-gas of C2H2, CH4, C2H4, H2, CO, etc can be efficiently synthesized.
The mixed gas of argon or argon-hydrogen is used as a plasma-gas and the steam is supplied into the lower stream of plasma-jet at 3 kg/h in this process.
Processing tires turned to be like dusts in about 500 μm through 80 kW of plasma-jet at 1.5 〜 4 kg/h , fuel-gases equal to 4 〜 7 MJ/m＾3 can be synthesized.
It's important to control the generated quantity of ZnO , SOx , NOx in processing abandoned tires.
The process with thermal plasma can suppress the issued quantity of SOx and NOx so as to be below 100 〜 200 ppm , can gather ZnO through a filter.
So, the process to decompose abandoned tires through thermal plasma also is remarkable.
3. The waste disposal by plasma at reduction mode
3.1 A way to turn molten flying dusts to be harmless
About fifty million tons of urban garbages a year are issued in this country, 70 % of them are burnt.
Several % of high volatile heavy-metals such as Pb and Zn are contained in burnt flying dusts which are generated in garbage dumps.
Flying dusts gathered by devices for collecting dusts such as electric dust-collector of incinerator and bug-filter are specified as specially managed general wastes, four kinds of methods for processing are set to those flying dusts on the executive law for waste disposal.
One of them is a molten slugging-method.
This is a way to melt flying dusts down at high temperature ( about 1200 〜 1500 ℃ ) and withdraw molten dusts turned to be like slug.
And, although dioxin at high concentration is contained in the flying dust, the molten slugging-method can decompose dioxin.
When flying dusts or burnt main dusts are molten down, heavy metals and salts contained in those dusts with low boiling point are volatily diffused and dusts like heavy metals which are more concentrated than flying dusts appear.
These are called molten flying dusts and are equal to about several % of the quantity of molten flying dusts.
As molten flying dusts contain heavy metals which have higher concentration than that of original burnt flying dusts, more rigorous way for handling than that of burnt flying dusts is required.
At present ( about 2011 ), molten flying dusts are being buried under managed places for disposal through processes to stabilize such as cement-slugging, drug-slugging.
But, as these molten flying dusts contain heavy metals at higher concentration than usual flying dusts and salts such as NaCl and KCl in large quantities, it's very hard to maintain the stability after slugging-process.
Furthermore, wet processing-methods using acid, alkaline chemicals eventually need large quantities of waters.
So that, the cost for chemicals tends to be expensive and the facility for drainage also tends to be large-scale.
Therefore, the development of compact and low-costed technology for processing molten flying dusts without water-processing has been desired.
One of the solutions for that is a processing-method to make molten flying dusts to be harmless through RF-thermal plasma with hydrogen.
Putting molten flying dusts in the RF-thermal plasma at high temperature reduction mode, those dusts are immediately evaporated and decomposed.
Then, heavy metals such as Pb, Zn contained as oxides in molten flying dusts are turned into metallic atoms in the plasma.
Taking these decomposed products separately or as bulks out of the lower stream of plasma, we can separate pure and harmless ashes from heavy metals.
To separate-withdraw flying dusts decomposed in RF-plasma, it's needed to control its process for condensing.
Respective temperatures of condensation are calculated out on the degree of super-saturation which is an important parameter related to the generation of nucleus during condensation.
This implies that hydrogen has significant influence on the temperature of condensation for ZnO .
Metals with low boiling point make aggregations on those surfaces of particles composing matters with high boiling point in burnt flying dusts or molten flying dusts.
This method with plasma for reduction can decompose or separate particles of dusts turned to be gas-like, atom-like from the mixture of various matters.
And, this can separately withdraw respective components by controlling post-processes for cohesion.
We carried out some experiments with a device for processing molten flying dusts.
This device was composed of a RF-plasma torch and a thermostat.
The thermostat as a component heated up matters to check the correlations of temperatures with collected matters in the lower stream of plasma.
In this case, flying dusts are led from the center of plasma torch to the nozzle for supplying, and the temperature of the thermostat for heating is optionally set up.
In particular, in the case of argon-hydrogen plasma, the quantity of contained heavy metals such as Pb, Zn is little in the range at high temperature above 700 〜 900 ℃ , meanwhile matters containing much heavy metals are withdrawn in the range at low temperature below 700 〜 900 ℃ .
The quantity of heavy metals contained in matters withdrawn in this range at high temperature was very little ( Pb ; 0.04 wt% , Zn ; 0.05 wt% ).
So, the system to process molten flying dusts by hydric RF-plasma is promising as a compact and low-costed technology for processing.
3.2 The processing of coal flying dusts
The fundamental research on the separation of components from coal flying dusts is being carried out ( about 2010 〜 2011 ).
The purpose of this research is to separate-withdraw silicon components with processing main components of coal flying dusts such as SiO2 and Al2O3 through argon-hydric plasma-jet.
Processing the mixture of SiO2 - Al2O3 through argon-plasma or argon-hydric plasma, the thermal decomposition or the reducing reaction of SiO2 is selectively caused.
So that, Si and SiO are obtained as evaporative matters, Al2O3 is left as a heated substance.
The reducing-reaction of SiO2 selectively happens and Si and SiO evaporate from the heated substance through argon-hydric plasma.
At the same time, the reducing reaction of Al2O3 also is partially caused, then Al and Al2O evaporate.
However, its speed of reaction is very slow, the quantity of evaporated matters is quitely little.
So that, the purity of silicon components withdrawn as evaporated substances becomes high.
4. The waste disposal by plasma at oxidative mode
4.1 The processing of low-level radioactive waste
Incombustible miscellaneous solid wastes of low-level radioactive wastes which were issued from nuclear power plants have remained un-treated.
The system to process low-level radioactive wastes with furnace for inducting meltdown by plasma is considered for the stabilization and the reduction of these wastes.
Ways such as cutting, compressing and melting, etc have been presented as methods to reduce volumes of waste, a more idealized method to process wastes with melting is expected to have the maximum ratio of reducing volume, even if various wastes are processed through this method, an uniform matter must be obtained.
The combination of RF-plasma with inductive furnace for heating of these methods to process with meltdown can process various wastes as a lump regardless of combustibility or incombustibility.
Furthermore, because oxidative plasma is used for processing in this method, it's possible to rapidly burn-decompose incombustible wastes through the method.
Therefore, at present ( about 2011 ), this method is being regarded as a validest way for processing.
The DC-plasma method has been used for reducing volume until now.
Although the oxygen-rich burning has been supported to be effective for burning incombustible matters, the exhaustion of electrodes was remarkable in this method.
And, the meltdown by inductive heating is not suitable for processing concretes and glasses.
Accordingly, the combination of RF-plasma with inductive furnace for heating will be able to compensate for above defects.
4.1 The processing of abandoned ion-exchange resin
The system to process abandoned ion-exchange resins with oxygen-plasma is being developed ( at 2011 ).
This is a way to reduce the volume and stabilize of ion-exchange resins which are generated in reactors for cleaning radionuclides, through oxygen-plasma.
A part of metallic materials composing a reactor which are corroded under high temperature reaches the reactor core as ion through coolant, and another part of those materials reaches the core as suspended matter respectively.
And, corroded products radio-activated by the irradiations of neutrons circulate in the system, adhere to pipings as clads.
Most of elements composing those clads are Fe, meanwhile the ratio of 60CO and 54Mn for contributing to radio-activity is high.
These nuclides are originated in CO , Ni and Fe composing stainless steel, stellite and inconel, etc which are materials to compose a nuclear power plant.
In particular, the radioactive half-life of 60CO is long compared with other nuclides, its energy of γ-ray is high.
So, it's difficult to handle this element.
Steams generated in a reactor are condensed through a device for returning water after driving the turbine.
Corroded products generated in the upper stream of the device for returning water are removed through ion-exchange resins in a purifier returning water.
Accordingly, powdered ion-exchange resins clean up radioisotopes activated in a reactor, so that those resins adsorb radio-activated CO and others.
Abandoned ion-exchange resins are generally stored in facilities. But, as it's hard to keep places for storing those matters, it's desired to reduce the volume and stabilize of those matters.
Because abandoned ion-exchange resins are in-combustible, it's hard to usually burn-reduce the volume of those.
Accordingly, the volume of low-level abandoned resins are reduced by burning those resins together with miscellaneous wastes, and they are stored as uniform solid matters through cement-slugging in facilities or are disposed.
Meanwhile, most of high level abandoned resins are stored at half-processed in the tank of the facility.
The same as that, ways to process abandoned resins generated during the disposition have never been found out ( about 2011 ).
A method with RF-plasma at decompression ( 0.25 〜 0.9 torr ) also is one of the efficient ways to process abandoned ion-exchange resins.
This method can decrease secondary wastes such as tar and soot through complete oxidation by oxygen-atoms and radicals.
These active particles directly interact with ion-exchange resins and decomposed gases from those resins to pull hydrogens out of an alkyl group, and they oxidize hydro-carbons through cutting into c-c coupling.
So that, those resins are transformed into gases such as CO, CO2, H2O and the volume of them are reduced.
And, metallic ions such as CO sticking to exchange bases of resins are left as oxides in reduced remnants.
The method to process abandoned ion-exchange resins by this decompression way has following advantages because that is at low temperature compared with burning.
・ It's possible to decrease the shift of radioactive nuclides into gas-phase.
・ It's possible to reduce the quantity of issued gas because this method is a direct oxidative process by oxygen-plasma.
In a demonstrative test-device, processing ion-exchange resins of 4L for three hours,
the ratio of reducing volume was about 90 % .
Then, supplying oxygen into the system at 50 L/min , the RF-plasma was realized under the condition at 450 Hz , 10 kW .
And, a method to process abandoned ion-exchange resins by oxygen-thermal plasma under atomospheric pressure also is being considered to increase the speed of processing.
It has been reported that abandoned ion-exchange resins were processed at 4 kg/h through the oxygen-plasma generated by a transition arc-discharge ( 42 kW ).
In this case, the mixture ratio of positive ion-exchange resins and negative ion-exchange resins was 50 : 50 .
This processing by plasma was carried out together with glasses of 25 kg ( Na2O - Al2O3 - 2SiO2 ) to trap radioactive nuclides sticking to ion-exchange resins.
In this method to process, ion-exchange resins are supplied from the upper part of the system and they are dropped into the glass molten through arc-discharge.
And, a comparison of batch-processing with continuous processing has been carried out.
Batch-processing is a method to process ion-exchange resins put in a melting pot by an arc-discharge of 24 kW.
In this case, ion-exchange resins of 100 cm＾3 were processed, the ratio of reduced volume of 65 % on positive ion-exchange resins ( IRN 77 ) and the ratio of reduced volume of 90 % on negative ion-exchange resins ( IRN 78 ) were obtained respectively.
The condition of continuous processing was set up same as that of batch processing, IRN 77 was processed at 200 g/min , IRN 78 was processed at 63 g/min respectively.
The ratio of reduced volume in this case didn't depend on the speed to supply ion-exchange resins so much.
That ( the ratio of reduced volume ) of IRN 77 was equal to about 60 % , and that of IRN 78 was equal to about 90 % .
This result was approximately equal to that of batch processing.
But, as the heating of batch processing can't be uniform, it's hard to control issued gases in this case.
Meanwhile, in the case of continuous processing, it's comparatively easy to control the composition of issued gas.
As the method to process abandoned ion-exchange resins by thermal plasma is basically a kind of burning process by oxygen in plasma, oxygen or air is used as a plasma-gas for processing.
※ When using air, we should pay attention to the generation of NOx .
And, as COs sticking to ion-exchange resins are roughly gathered up to resins after processing, they are not shifted into gas-phase almostly.
The method to process ion-exchange resins under atmospheric pressure with blowing oxygen into plasma-jet also is being considered ( about 2011 ).
As time for processing goes, the weight of resins substantially decreases.
So, the ratio of reduced mass of 90 〜 95 % can be obtained for about 20 〜 40 minutes on the process.
And, from the result of infrared absorption spectrum, it has been confirmed that strong acid ion-exchange resin has a character that as time goes, the peak on sulfonic acid group decreases and that peak completely vanishes by the processing of 20 minutes.
Furthermore, it also has been confirmed that CO sticking to ion-exchange resin is divided into CO 0 and CO3O4 , Cs turns to be Cs2SO4 .
4.3 The Decomposition of PCB
The process to decompose PCB in oxidative mode with oxygen plasma or air plasma is being considered ( about 2011 ).
For example, a system to process liquid wastes by plasma-jet has been realized to load on a heavy-duty trailer.
※ PCB can be decomposed with supplying PCB into a plasma-jet of 327 kW at 0.4 kg/min through this method.
And, in the PLASCON-system stated previously, a plant to process PCB by blowing PCB itself together with oxygen into the system has been completed.
This PLASCON-system can process PCB at 40 〜 50 kg/h by reacting oil including PCB with oxygen through the DC-plasma jet of 150 kW .
Weakquakes had occurred on both ends of Japan within a short time just before a large-scale earthquake happened in Italy at the beginning of April of 2009 .
Then, it also was pointed out that there are non-local correlations on tectonic movements of the earth.
※ Some told that the case in Italy might be related to heliacal neutrinos or neutrino-beams.
By the way, the same as situations in other countries, large quantities of untreated radioactive wastes are still kept to be buried under ground of this country too.
And, a neutrino-detector called SK is put under the area neighboring to Hida.
5. The separation of matters by reactive thermal plasma
5.1 The separation of matters by hydric plasma
The 'high chemical activation' possessed by thermal plasma is suitable for the separation of components from mixture.
Generally, hydrogen is used for the reaction of high chemical active plasma.
And, hydrogen is used as a plasma-gas for arc-melting too.
Then, hydrogen is effective for refinements such as the devaporization from molten metals, the separation-removal of impurities.
Deacidifying, decarbonization and denitrogenization from molten steels, deacidifying, decarbonization from Ta and the refinement of Mo from molybdenum mineral deposites are being studied as processes to refine metals with the high chemical activation of hydrogen in thermo-plasma ( about 2011 ).
The withdrawing of Ta from a scrap of abandoned Ta-condensers is known as an application of hydric plasma to waste-disposal.
As Ta-condensers inserted into computers contain manganese and oxygen, efficient processes to deoxidize, de-manganize are needed to reuse them.
In particular, as Ta is one of the uneven distributed resources, an used Ta-condenser can be a precious secondary resource of Ta .
It has been realized to reduce concentrations of nitrogen, Fe, Ni as well as oxygen, Mn as impurities into about 100 mass ppm with only single manufacturing process through arc-melting process by hydric plasma.
The withdrawing of Zr from Zircoloy-scrap also has been carried out by hydric plasma.
Zr is utilized as Zircoloy to compose fuel-covering pipes of a nuclear reactor.
The scrap of large quantities of cutoffs and defective products which are generated in manufacturing of covering pipes also can be regarded as a secondary resource of Zr .
Zircoloy contains Fe, Sn, Ni, Cr, it has been attained to reduce Fe, Ni, Cr into 10 mass ppm and Sn into 100 mass ppm through arc-melting by hydric plasma ( about 2010 〜 2011 ).
In these processes, hydrogens dissociated in a plasma play important roles to remove impurities from metals.
But, its concrete mechanisms have never been made clear ( at 2011 ) .
For example, Mimura and others explained that temporal loose couplings of Fe and H like clusters are formed, so that the separation of Fe from molybdenum mineral deposite can be effectively carried out through hydrogen.
And, as suggested in a process to manufacture superfine particles with hydric arc, the compulsory vaporization-model of dissociated hydrogens also is considered as one of the factors.
This compulsory vaporizing action is a model that the generation of superfine particles is originated in reaction heat which is caused through recoupling-releasing processes of supersaturatively molten hydrogens in a liquid metal ( such as magma ).
Ohno and Uda asserted that speeds of vaporization for respective metals originated in this compulsory vaporizing action can be calculated out of a parameter Rp expressed with the following formula.
Rp ＝ ( − Δ H/L )・( nH2〈T〉／ nH2〈273K〉)
( 4 )
Δ H ; reactive heat to re-combine hydric atoms at temperature T
L ; latent heat to vaporize metals at T
nH2〈T〉; numerical density of hydric molecules at T
nH2〈273K〉; numerical density of hydric molecules at 273K
In the process to manufacture superfine particles of inter-metallic compounds with hydric arc, it's possible to control the composition of generated superfine particles through hydrogens in the plasma.
The higher the concentration of hydrogens in the plasma becomes, the more the composition of Ti in superfine particles of intermetallic compounds which are generated from the mixture of raw materials ( such as Ti , Si ) put on the positive pole ( anode ) gets.
As the pressure of steam of Ti is equal to about 1/10 of that of Si , the quantity of evaporation of Ti must be promoted to synthesize superfine particles of intermetallic compounds of TiSi2 .
Namely, we can control the composition of generated superfine particles by the concentration of hydrogen in an arc.
In this case, same results can be derived from the combination of Mo & Si or V & Si .
Accordingly, we have known that hydrogens contained in plasma play same role as a kind of catalyst to promote the evaporation of specific metals.
Considered causes are shown as follows.
( 1 ) Compulsory vaporizing actions by hydrogens dissociated in plasma
( 2 ) The increase of vaporized quantity because of thermal conductive ratio raised by hydrogens
( 3 ) The generation of intermediate products such as hydric-products
( 4 ) The change of activated quantity by hydrogens fusing into molten metal
The relation of the reactive parameter shown in formula ( 4 ) with the coefficient of separation derived from the composition of superfine particles has been made clear.
The coefficient of separation of the arc with hydrogen of 20 % is far different from that with hydrogen of 50 % .
This implies that the mechanism to promote the vaporization through hydric-arc is not originated in ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) .
So, it can be supposed that the promotion of vaporizing specific metals through hydrogens in a plasma is originated in ( 3 ) or ( 4 ) .
However, because intermediate products such as hydrite-products composed of molten metals ( including magma ) and hydrogens in plasma are unstable, it's difficult to experimentally examine them.
And, it also is hard to calculate out the change on activated quantities of a molten metal by hydrogens.
※ Magma also can be often regarded as a kind of molten metal.
By the way, technologies to make underground-tunnels and to deeply dig strata to the mantle by melting rocks through direct-current plasma have been developed.
5. The separation of matters by reactive thermal plasma
5.2 The separation of matters by chloric plasma
Hydrogens have mainly been used to cause plasma-reactions with applying 'high chemical activation' of thermal plasma until now ( about 2010 〜 2011 ) .
But, we have very few informations about plasma-reactions related to hydrogens such as thermo-dynamical data to realize such reactions ( for example, melting points, boiling points and steam-pressures of hydrogenated matters, etc ).
Therefore, it's difficult to theoretically study such processes.
In the case of chlorines in thermal plasma, the same as that of hydrogens, peculiar reactions happen.
Following merits are contained in chemical reactions of plasma with chlorines.
( 1 ) It's easy to generate chlorides with high pressured steam. And, it's possible to carry out special separations.
( 2 ) Values to describe material states of chlorides are very more than those of hydrogenated matters.
( 3 ) Chlorides are easier to analyze than hydrogenated matters because of its stability.
According to above merits, ways to separate matters from wastes with chloric plasma are useful to make clear mechanisms of the separation of matters.
Examples of separation of matters from metallic mixtures through chloric plasma are as follows.
We carried out separations of KOVAR-alloys ( Fe ＝ 53, Co ＝ 17, Ni ＝ 29 mass % ) through argon-plasma, argon-chloric plasma, argon-chlorine-oxygen plasma.
Those results are shown here. In the case of argon-plasma ( 10 L/min ), evaporated components were about same as those of KOVAR-alloy.
Accordingly, this means that three kinds of metals were mutually very similar in character and its speeds of evaporation also were about equal mutually.
In the case of argon-chloric plasma ( Ar ; 10 L/min , Cl 2 ; 0.25 L/min ), Fe selectively evaporates.
And, in the case of argon-chlorine-oxygen plasma, if the flux of oxygen is small, Fe selectively evaporates.
Meanwhile, if the flux of oxygen increases into 1.0 or 2.5 L/min , the evaporation of Fe is suppressed to generate oxides with low steam-pressure.
Furthermore, the concentration of Co in hume becomes higher to generate chlorides with high-pressured steam.
So, we can separate components of Fe or Co from Fe-Co-Ni alloys by chloric plasma.
Changes on free-energy ( Gibbs ) were taken into account to study such selective mechanisms to separate.
The concept of change on free-energy by Gibbs can be applied to the selective evaporations of Fe in cases of argon-chloric plasma or argon-chlorine-oxygen plasma.
※ Especially, the latter case had a small-sized flux of oxygen.
It's known that there are correlations between concentrations of elements in hume and changes on free-energy in chloric reactions of respective elements with chloric atoms, the bigger the changes on free-energy of chloric reactions get, the higher the concentrations of elements in hume become.
Namely, the efficiency for separating components with chloric plasma depends on progressive situations on chloride reactions of respective components.
Material states of Fe, Co, Ni are very similar mutually. However, those changes on free-energy related to chloride reactions are different reciprocally.
So that, it's possible to separate those components from alloys.
Accordingly, it's likely that a mechanism to selectively separate specific materials from other matters through chloric plasma is originated in the generation of chlorides from molten metals and chloric plasma.
So, it's probable that some mechanisms to separate specific materials from other matters and a special evaporating-mechanism by hydric plasma are 'not' originated in compulsory evaporating actions by hydrogens dissociated in plasma, the formation of temporal products such as hydrogenated matters is one of the main factors to cause such special mechanisms.
Tentatively, it's possible to reduce waste disposal-cost by properly using high chemical activations of thermal plasma and characters at high temperature.
※ An example ;
A way to replace wet-processes with acid, alkaline chemicals by dry-processes with thermo-plasma
( about 2011 )
Furthermore, there are realizable processes with only thermo-plasma.
・ Thermal plasma is being used to melt flying dusts generated from burnt urban garbages.
・ A method to process urban garbages containing a set of burnt／melted dusts.
・ The decomposition of respective gases used in processes to manufacture semiconductors. The process for removing gases with reactive thermal plasma is effective in decomposition.
・ Reactive thermal plasma is effective to completely decompose SF6 used in large quantities for circuit breaker.
From a writing by Takayuki.Watanabe ( majoring in chemical environmental science in a graduate course of the department of synthetic science & engineering of Tokyo Kougyo university ).
By the way, it also has been known that specific kinds of natural plants such as sunflower are effective to clarify radioactive ground.
It's reported that 'magnetic monopole beams' generated from the following topo-logical circuit can control decays of radioactive nuclides.
Ways to dispose of abandoned ion-exchange resins with thermal plasma are shown here.
In fact, it's possible to experimentally demonstrate an interesting phenomenon with superpositions of wet negative ion-exchange films and wet positive ion-exchange films.
The demonstration is as follows.
Some magazine carried an article about the so-called 'perpetual pump' invented by Tsuyoshi.Iai ( 1990 ).
The summary of the article is as follows.
「・・・ Superposing a wet positive ionic exchange film on a wet negative ionic exchange film, irregular Brownian motions of water molecules are spontaneously arranged around the junction part.
And, water moves from the side of positive ionic exchange film ( 〈+〉) to the negative ionic exchange film ( 〈−〉) .
In this case, we used a film with smoothed surface as an exchange film, put in order to be 〈filter paper〉ー 〈 ＋ 〉ー 〈 − 〉ー 〈filter paper〉, this order is 'sandwiched' with two smoothed sheets and the 'sandwich' is pressed down.
Under such a simple structure, water oozed out of around the latter filter paper.
We could obtain a 'perpetual pump' by gathering oozed waters and leading them into a glass tube.
The same thickness as a hair is enough to make a passage from a filter paper to a glass tube, meanwhile we have to prepare the mechanism so as not to leak water on the way of passage.
Then, in the picture of the magazine, the passage of the pump is composed in order to be 〈filter paper〉ー〈+〉ー〈−〉ー〈filter paper〉ー〈+〉ー〈−〉ー〈filter paper〉・・・, its surround is congealed with epoxy resins.
More than 10 years have passed since manufacturing the pump, but the pump is drawing water still more ( in the beginning of the 1990's ).
Accordingly, it has been confirmed that the second law of thermodynamics is wrong. ・・・」
(→ 〝Maxwell's demon″ )
A chief of some section of the National Science Museum ( K.Aoki ) also received the pump and told as follows.
「This device is so simple, ion-exchange films are only stuck on the way of the lower part of C-type glass tube, the device doesn't have other mechanisms.
But, surely, waterdrops are coming through the sheet every ten and several minutes, although more than one month have passed after receiving the device, such a situation is constantly continuing.
The inventor explained 'random motions of water-molecules are arranged in specific directions by ion-exchange films stuck on the lower part of C-type glass tube forming a circuit of water' .
But, I can't sufficiently understand of that.
I don't believe in perpetual motion and don't think that this device is a perpetual motion.
However, at present, I have never been able to rationally explain of this phenomenon.」
We have heard that the principle same as this case can be applied to an electric current according to Iai's private messages.
「・・・ Even if a circuit is made of a circular wire, an electric current doesn't run through the circuit.
But, even in this situation, electrons are not stationary, some electrons move to the right and other electrons move to the left due to diffusion.
Merely, it seems that electric currents don't run through the circuit because of the balance of both electrons.
Then, inserting an asymmetric component ( for example, thermo-coupling. However, as a heating process is added to this component, this can't be a perpetual cell ) into this circuit to break down the balance, an electric current is spontaneously generated. ・・・」
※ It's significant to insert (≒ immerse) an asymmetric element into the circuit for breaking down balance or symmetry (→ structures far from equilibrium, symmetry-breaking including ground-figure switch).
「・・・ We have been able to find out a proper component for the circuit.
The 'perpetual pump' is a mere demonstrative model, meanwhile various practical ways applying its principle to electronics can be presented.
So, actually, it's being continued to improve the mechanism so as to semi-permanently extend its lifespan in comparison with batteries on the market. ・・・」
By the way, it's very difficult to find out detailed informations of his projects on the internet for now.
It seems that this person engaged in studying functions of sheet-structure in aeromechanics.
This topic reminds us of followings.
・ An universe is getting like a pair of sheets ( or a pair of shears, a pair of homeo-morphisms ) according to Ummite's documents.
・ The word 'Lam' ( this word means way or path in Tibetan Buddhism ) implies a feature of the universe as a laminated (≒ membraned) structure immersing us.
We should pay attention to mushroom clouds found out in two regions of the earth ( one in Russia, another in Argentina ).
「Massive 'Atomic Bomb' Cloud was Spotted over Argentina」 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nUe_MSFdSGI
Surely, most of the conspiracy theories are interpreted as information-operations for misleading.
St.Germain is one of the most famous mysterious persons ( or time-travelers ).
I've heard that he visited Japan in 1984.
＞ it's not proper to analyze aging process of human bone with rodents ( we should use tissues of larger-sized animals such as rabbit, dog, monkey to make clear such aging mechanisms more precisely ).
＞ 3 Neuron-Silicon Circuits
＞ Neurons identified from invertebrates are preferred in these experiments
＞ Because, those neurons form strong neuro-electronic junctions
＞ small neuronal networks have a distinct bio-logical function in invertebrates
＞ they may be re-constituted on a chip
Red blood cells are mainly produced in a bone marrow.
In general, the color of the blood of vertebrates ( fishes, amphibia, reptilia, birds, mammalia including primates ) is red, because a protein called heme constituting hemoglobin contained in red blood cell is red in color.
Meanwhile, the color of the blood of invertebrates is not red, because hemocyanin ( a kind of respiratory pigment ) contained in the blood of invertebrates isn't red in color.
I emphasized that red blood cells are produced in a bone marrow, differences between invertebrate and vertebrate in character such as behaviors of derived neurons on a semiconductor chip (≒ substrate), the color of the blood.
In particular, as specific proteins can be regarded as 'organic semiconductors' , 3-dimensional topological fruits can be applied to understanding of stereoscopic structures of proteins, we should pay attention to above points.
It's meaningful in engineering that neurons taken out from invertebrates form strong neuro-electronic junctions.
The same as that, if we search for 「horseshoe crab blue blood」, we can find out that bloods taken out from horseshoe crabs are precious as medical chemicals.
＞ 「САМОЕ ИНТЕРЕСНОЕ НА КАНАЛЕ // ТАИНСТВЕННЫЕ ОТКРЫТИЯ」
Probably, as the producer has always made only too nonsense stories, at last a female viewer has got so angry.
This one apparently shows such a situation.
But, actually, this short motion picture indirectly means that USA found out that troublesome something for the human race on the earth to handle ( likened to a monster ) existed in the moon.
＞ USA found out that troublesome something for the human race on the earth to handle ( likened to a monster ) existed in the moon
※ A worm-hole is a kind of handle.
Troublesome features of the moon for the human race on the earth are as follows.
・ A colony of alien civilization
・ An artificial satellite to monitor situations of the earth
・ The Void-of-Course Moon ( https://cafeastrology.com/timingwiththemoon.html )
According to some mystics including John.Dee and G.I.Gurdjieff,
it's told that after the death, the soul of a human being who had spent one's life with kaleidoscopically varying emotions and impulses would be immediately absorbed into the astral light of the moon.
Namely, everybody can't experience re-incarnation with no conditions.
In this case, the astral light of the moon assimilating a soul of an impulsive human being corresponds to the monster from id which appears in a movie entitled 『Forbidden Planet』.
※ According to psychoanalysis, it's told that a self is roughly divided into ego, meta-ego and id.
This id bears disordered behaviors of e-motions and random impulses.
In the sense, this id is nearer to imaginary dimension of complex number valued dimension than 「complex k-dimension ＝ real 2k-dimension」asserted by mathematicians.
Somehow, 怪談 meaning 'story of ghost(-writer)' is pronounced 「kwaidan」rather than 「kaidan」in English.
Provisionally, it's not irrelevant to call me Kaochi getting lost the sense of equilibrium, smooth movements of vocal cord and esophagus due to degeneration of cerebellum, spinal cord and brainstem ( somewhat long ) following the above naming.
There is a mentioning 'oni-no-kubi wo totta yo-ni (鬼の首を取ったように)' in Japanese.
In this case, as oni-no-kubi (鬼の首 ＝ the head of the demon) is a metaphor to imply a very precious and rare something or an extreme and remarkable achievement, it means that some person behaves proudly as if the person wins a remarkable something as rare as the head of the demon.
To show the 'Penrose Triangle' which is impossible to construct in R＾3 like the following may be same as winning the head of the demon.
By the way, a degenerated angel called 'Beelzebub' is told to be the ring-leader of all demons (≒ scotomas, blind spots and shadows in psycho-analytic meaning).
※ Namely, Momi-taro ripens oneself into an adult by overcoming demons namely own shadowy or negative features.
Though it's impossible to construct the Penrose-triangle in R＾3 , the same as works by M.C.Escher, it's possible to draw it in R＾2 with projective method.
That point ( the difference between R＾3 and R＾2 in expression ) is unexpectedly important.
In the case of JAL-Flight 350 crash accident ( 1982/02/09 ), the distance between the crash position and Toshiba experimental nuclear power plant was just 2 〜 300 meters.
If that was unfortunate, the plain crash would cause a catastrophic disaster.
These unusual triangular domains also may be grouped into the Penrose Triangle.
Because, it's possible to display a Penrose Triangle in R＾2 and R＾4 (＝ R＾2 × R＾2 ＝ R＾2 ∧ R＾2) but it's impossible to construct it.
Bermuda Triangle and Dragon's Triangle also may be grouped into the Penrose Triangle.
Because, it's possible to display a Penrose Triangle in R＾2 , R＾4 (＝ R＾2 × R＾2 = R＾2 ∧ R＾2) but it's impossible to construct it in R＾3 .
The Fussa Police Department in Tonkin
＞ It's famous that a nibbled apple was put besides the dead body of Alan.Turing.
a kink at each stage ≒ a self-intersection ( or a self-interaction ) at each lifetime
Namely, such a kink as a self-interaction in a space-time makes us re-mind 'the laws of Karma' .
In other words, it's too late to bother about the matter after it comes.
You Fact rather than You Tube
A bone seems to be a non-porous solid at a glance, but it actually has very porous structure.
In case of materials in the nature, clear distinctions between porous parts and non-porous parts are not found out.
Rather, in many cases, those materials have density gradient.
For instance, in case of bamboo, the fibrous volume occupying the peripheral part is higher than that occupying the central part in ratio.
Therefore, a bamboo has tubular structure, meanwhile the rigidity in bending at each section also rises.
And, a wood, a pillar-like bone and a bamboo have anisotropic shape, their mechanical strengths depend on the direction of load.
Cellular materials in the nature seem to positively use anisotropy for maximumly reducing a load applied to the material and improving mechanical strength.
In case of tree, a maximum stress in bending caused through winds is applied in the longer direction of a trunk or a branch.
Therefore, a rigidity of a wood gets stronger in the longer direction, and the strength in the longer direction also is higher than that in the vertical direction.
Accordingly, in this case, it's effectively used in the material that a honeycomb structure gets stronger in the longer direction.
And, the pillar-like bone of a spine grows in the longer direction of its honeycomb structure so as to bear its weight.
As the above, interestingly, if a porous material has anisotropy, it's self-organized like the following way.
That is, pores are oriented so as to draw the strength of the porous material in a direction to which the maximum load is applied.
Rather, it's probable that such technologies for artificial joint contribute to producing synthetic humanoids such as replicants appearing in various SFs or cyborgs such as Kenzou.Kabuto (兜剣造) .
Whether matters discharged by the human race are more than harmful matters or harmless matters to the natural environment surrounding us.
Convenient matters to the human race are rather different from harmless matters to the nature.
Molten metals such as magma are associated with arc-discharge.
Because arc-discharge is frequently used in welding.
However, it's not known so much that if a furnace is formed by spatially, radially placing plural arc-discharges, wastes processed in such a furnace are transformed into reusable matters.
This is one of the very important discoveries for the human race.
It's pointed out that the earth is a planet like a prison, the human race in this planet is at irrational and unhappy state in 『Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson』too.
It's likely that 'prisoner's dilemma' also holds for the human race in this planet.
＞ large quantities of UHMWPE-abrasion granules are contained in tissues around the implanted part, granulation tissues surrounded by macrophages and foreign body giant cells absorb osseous tissues near those implanted parts,
＞ About one hundred and fifty thousand reconstructive surgeries for injured anterior cruciate ligament are performed a year in USA, about thirty 〜 fifty thousand reconstructive surgeries for it are performed a year in Japan.
Usual semiconductors are made of silicons, meanwhile organic semiconductors can be produced from plastics.
Besides, proteins in a living body have some same features as organic semiconductors.
Accordingly, the gigantic aggregation of plastic garbages ( which has self-similarity ) may contribute to production of organic semiconductors and biological automata near natural organisms.
This incident occurred in the next day of Chernobyl disaster ( 1986/04/26 ).
I've remembered that a serious alcoholic in the next door abnormally made a noise every evening at that time.
The provisional name of the hopeless alcoholic was '大西共産党 ( the Great Western Communist Party )' .
How should I do to break off improper relations with harmful people including over-addicted people to undesirable things？
By the way, I heard that such a hopeless alcoholic like 'the Great Western Communist Party ( a provisional name ) has close relation to 'Sao Paulo Forum ( http://www.asyura2.com/07/cult5/msg/257.html )' which brings various misfortunes and fatal damages to chosen targets ( https://vimeo.com/162848349 ).
I've remembered that a serious alcoholic in the next door abnormally made a noise every evening at that time.
The provisional name of the hopeless alcoholic was '大西共産党 ( the Great Western Communist Party )' .
How should I do to break off improper relations with harmful people including over-addicted people to undesirable things？
By the way, I heard that such a hopeless alcoholic like 'the Great Westrrn Communist Party ( a provisional name )' has close relation to 'Sao Paulo Forum' ( http://www.asyura2.com/07/cult5/msg/257.html ) which brings various misfortunes and fatal damages to chosen targets ( https://vimeo.com/162848349 ).
Why are these sites located in the dark web called 'onion'？
鬼音 is pronounced onion in Japanese language.
Furthermore, 鬼音 in Kan-characters means demonic sounds.
〈 Keys 〉
Acoustic Emission method, phonon as acoustic quantum ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonon )
We should pay attention that 'demon' often means people having special talents or 'police' in colloquial or rather cryptic context.
Accordingly, it's likely that they are sites to trap suspected persons and 'targets' .
If this assertion is valid, earthquake swarms around Osaka this time will settle down on a minimum damage.
By the way, a ( 5, 2 ) or ( 2, 5 ) type torus knot can be projected into a plane as a pentagram.
One pentagonal building is placed in Arlington County of Virginia state in USA ( nl : 38°52'15.87'' , wl : 77°03'21.49'' ), another is put in Hakodate-city of Hokkaido in Japan ( nl : 41°47'48.84'', el : 140°45'25.06'' ).
An elastic and viscous field organized with ( virtual ) contours in potential is likened to a 'giant fish' to cause an earthquake or a 'giant rice-cake AND/OR giant dough' to cause a (back-)groundtremor.
The large-scale pentagram placed on the region including Osaka and Nara bears roles as both cap and template.
A large-scale force-field has been molded into a giant starfish-shaped automaton owing to a role as a template.
Besides, as the large-scale pentagram as a cap has come off the region, the molded giant starfish has been released from the region and it has started to freely move.
Since the last late fall, somehow, I've minded some phrases included in a Japanese popular song.
例えば、'something is moving gradually (≒ something is at movement)' , 'a new re-volution originated in a certain state' , etc.
In particular, not only the Eurasian plate and the North American plate but also the Philippine plate affect base rocks supporting the Japanese islands.
A mechanism to cause such a group hallucination is clearly different from a mechanism to cause a personal hallucination.
It seems that aggregative unconsciousness contributes to such dynamics of crowd-minds.
Of course, this over-addicted alcoholic called '大西共産党 ( the Great Western Communist Party, a provisional name )' directly has no relation to a partner of a pair of comedians called 'ちゃらんぽらん ( Sloppiness, 1980 〜 2008 )' .
But researchers and doctors are still taking a prudent stance in use of this way on a human body.
Because it's possible that an effective way for rodents is not necessarily effective for larger sized animals including primates.
However, this discovery is significant as a clue to cures for this kind of disease.
A hopeless alcoholic called ‘大西共産党 ( the Great Western Communist Party )’ had lived comparatively near the place until 2013 .
I heard that this hopeless alcoholic ( >>378 ) had come from Sikoku district of Japan to Hokkaido district.
Probably, demonic influences brought by ‘大西共産党’ such as Inugami (犬神) might affect the person who committed suicide.
A very harmful being called ‘酒乱・大西共産党’ was transferred from Sikoku (死国 or 尸国) to a place near to the suicidal spot to persistently give various damages to chosen targets.
Besides, it’s probable that those harmful reverberations called ‘Kodoku (蠱毒)’ which had been brought by the ‘酒乱・大西共産党’ affected the person who committed suicide.
In the meaning, this case is similar to a pattern likened as ‘the Merida ( in Mexico ) incident’ .
Is it possible that electromagnetic fluids had been leaked out through the telegraph pole made of wood which was slantedly put on the position for a long period, those fluids remarkably gave influence on living beings around there ？
By the way, the Merida case is meaningful in following points.
・ Strong radioactivity was detected over a wide range around the site.
・ A semi-transparent being ( as a virtual moving figure ) was captured by a camera incorporated into the mobile phone.
From「Notes on Artificial Medical Materials」,
8.7 Methods to evaluate an artificial joint
60 years have passed since the first practical use of artificial joint ( in 2013 ).
Various artificial joints have been produced until now.
Developments of technology are making steady progress year by year, respective standards have settled to ensure safeties of various products.
At present, various standards ( mainly, ASTM, ISO, etc ) have been presented to ensure various conditions from a strength test of the main body of an artificial joint to materials to package it.
But, unfortunately, an artificial joint is rarely broken down due to conditions for use.
It’s very important to analyze such an unfortunate case and utilize analyzed results for newly producing an artificial joint.
Then, generally used technologies in the industrial field such as observation of fracture surface and investigation of material quality are utilized for analysis.
8.7-1 Standards for ways to evaluate an artificial joint
In general, respective standardization tests are set for respective parts and conditions to ensure safety of each artificial joint.
※ For instance, ISO ( International Organization for Standardization ), ASTM ( American Society for Testing & Materials )
And, respective artificial joints developed on these standards are practically used through some tests.
There are various standards for respective applied parts and respective materials for packaging.
In case of artificial hip joint, the stem is fixed with osteo-cement, fatigue tests are performed to the artificial hip joint on specific patterns.
Then, roughly, 230 〜 2300 N of load is applied to it, five millions 〜 ten millions times of fatigue test are carried out to ensure the safety.
Furthermore, the strength is checked through FEM ( Finite Element Method ) to consider the stress-distribution in designing an artificial joint.
According to those analyses through FEM , we can see cases in which stresses are applied to an inner part and a screw-hole.
8.7-2 Analyses of broken cases
Unfortunately, if the artificial joint is broken down in the middle of use, we must make clear the cause and utilize those obtained informations for developments of products in the future.
In general, terms shown in the table are analyzed to check an artificial joint.
Terms different from those terms are often analyzed dependently on conditions using it and other viewpoints.
※ Terms to be checked are shown in the table ( fig.2 ).
In this case, according to the withdrawn re-substituted artificial hip joint, the artificial hip joint was broken down from the screw-hole of the distal part.
Then, fractography is utilized to catch causes of breakdown.
First, macro-fractures are observed by an optical microscope, it’s possible to check types of breakdown ( fatigue fracture, impact breakdown, torsional rupture, etc ) and the running direction of each breakdown on radial patterns and beach-marks captured by it.
It’s possible to not only observe micro-fractures such as striation dimples and defects such as precipitative structures, voids but also estimate causes to break down materials & constructions and destruction processes with SEM ( Scanning Electron Microscope ).
※ A broken nail to fix a foot joint is shown in fig.4 .
Though such a nail is mainly used to fix the joint of a rheumatic patient, if an over-load is applied to the nail under insufficient bone adhesion, a fatigue fracture is caused on it.
According to this image, as it’s possible to clearly see patterns such as striation on the fracture, we can find out that it’s a kind of fatigue fracture together with stable crack growth.
Furthermore, it’s possible to estimate the loaded condition on the pattern of the start of the fracture and the area of the end-section of it.
8.7-3 Recent ways to analyze ( in 2013 )
Several tens years have passed since the first clinical application of polyethylene materials to an artificial joint.
Those clinical applications and those results in material have remarkably been improved.
But, the distribution of working stresses has never been made clear yet.
Recently, JFE techno-research has measured the distribution of stresses over the surface of material with an infrared camera.
The infrared camera used at that time has 0.02 ℃ of temperature resolution, it’s possible to visualize distributions of defects and stresses by measuring surfaces of respective implants in testing strength with such a camera.
Such a camera is mainly used to analyze fatigue situations on the stem of an artificial hip joint and a spine cage.
In particular, it’s useful for checking the design for an artificial joint and more detailed analyses of an accidental case through reproduction tests.
It’s one of the subjects for analytic technologies in the future to produce a model nearer to an actual human body which has higher quality than the model of human body at present ( about 2013 ).
If bio-materials ( such as artificial joints ) which are nearer to living tissues are developed with such combinations of material technologies with analytic technologies, those products will contribute to improvement in QOL ( Quality Of Life ).
Recent rapid progress in technology have enabled various ways for analysis.
Owing to those progress, unknown parts have been made clear and it has been possible to measure an actual shape.
It’s desirable that such technologies for measurement are effectively applied to respective medical devices including artificial joints, they contribute to improvement in QOL.
‘Hemi-Sync (≒ hemi-synchronization)’ proposed by Robert.Monroe means that a subtle difference (≒ disagreement) between respective sounds given through both ears is interpreted as the ‘third’ sound in some organ.
・ a positive ion (＝ a cat-ion)
・ a quantum superposition ( overlapping ) of a living state (≒ a non-equilibrium state) with a dead state (≒ an equilibrium state) 〜 Schrödinger’s cat
・ Cheshire-cat ; a being which is completely independent of gravity
・ A pollution-caused disease called Minamata-disease was publicly recognized through a following rumor as one of the clues.
‘I saw a tottering cat around here’
Besides, it’s probable that bad influences called Kodoku (蠱毒) brought through an obscure assassin such as 「酒乱・大西共産党 ( the Great Western Communist Party as a Hopeless Alcoholic )」have remarkably affected the fellows habitually pasting undesirable advertisements on the net so as to make them misbehave.
An addition ;
A severe woman as a supervisory role is often called ‘a dragon’.
Which is cuter, the girl kneading dough ( >>58 ) or the girl playing a role as Otohime ( at that time )？
By the way, Gorbachev had likened R.W.Reagan to a dinosaur in the past.
( 1 ) If a cat held on one’s back at an optional height is released to the floor,
the cat will get to the floor at a normal pose with twisting one’s body.
( 2 ) Here, it’s assumed that a position at an optional height corresponds to one polarizing plate, meanwhile the floor corresponds to another polarizing plate.